.....Forty years of extensive and
varied experience in all facets associated with:
.....Aquatic Facility Design,
Development, Operation and Management
.. . ..for successful Public
Aquarium and Oceanarium Operations which included the areas of:
- Aquarium design and construction
- Aquarium operation techniques
- Design of innovative aquarium displays
- Marine specimen collecting
- Management and administration
- Laboratory operation
.....The highlights of experience in
the above areas are presented as follows:
AQUARIUM DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
- Developed a high pressure aquarium for the exhibit of animals
of the deep sea.
- Designed the innovative live exhibits for Monterey Bay
Aquarium's $60 million Open Sea expansion project opened March,
1996 and Mysteries of the Deep opened March, 1999.
- Designed the live components of the seven highly successful
Special Exhibits at the Monterey Bay Aquarium.
- Worked with Architects, Engineers and Exhibit Designers on the
Monterey Bay Aquarium, completed in October, 1984. This facility
incorporates a number of unique exhibit, tank and life support
designs and presently represents the state of the art in modern
- Worked with Joe Wetzel Associates on the living exhibits for
the Aquarium of the Pacific, Long beach, CA
- Designed the live exhibits for the South Carolina Aquarium in
Charleston, SC, to open May, 2000.
- Designed the live exhibits for the Aquarium of the Americas in
New Orleans, LA, which opened in September, 1990.
- Worked with the Architects, Engineers and Construction
Companies during all phases of the construction of Sea World's
Freshwater Aquarium Building, Experimental Shark Tank, Tide Pool
exhibit and Marine Aquarium expansion project. Designed the live
displays and life support systems for the aquariums and the shark
exhibits at Sea World of Ohio and Sea World of Florida.
- Participated in the complete demolition and reconstruction
project for San Francisco's Steinhart Aquarium in 1962-63. During
this rebuilding became thoroughly familiar with the many aspects
of design and construction of a major world class public
- In addition to the above, consultation services were performed
involving the design of live exhibits for the following aquarium
- Aquarium of the Americas, New Orleans, LA
Ballona Creek, Los Angeles, CAChina, City of Dalien
Chula Vista Interpretive Center, CA
Cleveland Aquarium, OH
Denver Zoological Gardens, CO
Hawaiian Ocean Center, Honolulu, HI
Island Bay Marine Ed. Centre, Wellington, New Zealand
National Aquarium in Baltimore, MD
New England Aquarium, Boston, MA
Mexico. National Aquarium of Mexico
Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach, CA
Oakland Museum of Science, CA
Osaka Ring of Fire Aquarium
Sea of Cortez Aquarium
Sea Life Park, Oahu, HI
Singapore, Economic Research Associates
Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, IL
South Carolina Aquarium, Charleston, SC
Texas State Aquarium, Corpus Christi, TX
Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa
Univ. of Calif. Berkeley, CA, Life Science Bldg.
Washington, D.C. Zoological Society
Waikiki Aquarium, Hawaii
Wellington, New Zealand. Marine Education Centre
AQUARIUM MANAGEMENT AND OPERATION
- Was directly involved in every phase of the 24 hour-a-day,
seven day-a-week operating schedule of the Husbandry Division of
the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Was previously responsible for the same
at Steinhart Aquarium, Sea World and Marineland of the Pacific.
Responsible for the continuous maintenance of clean, healthy and
interesting aquatic displays.
- Possess a familiarity with all phases of Aquarium Management.
This has been learned from the ground up and ranges from actual
Aquarium Maintenance at Marineland to Aquarium Supervision at Sea
World, Steinhart and Monterey Bay Aquarium. Aquarium Supervision
involves the scheduling of staff, ordering of supplies and food
for the animals and the scheduling of feeding and treatments for
the thousands of different specimens on display, many of which
require special diets and treatment. Other responsibilities
included the purchasing of specimens, materials and general
supplies necessary for the operation of a large public aquarium.
Planned, organized and supervised eight successful large-scale
fish and shark collecting expeditions to tropical Mexico, Florida
and the South Pacific.
- In addition to the maintenance of the displays, animals and
equipment described above, the operation of any public aquarium or
oceanarium encompasses answering the profusion of written and
in-person questions from the general public. Made television and
radio appearances as well as oral presentations to outside
DESIGN OF INNOVATIVE AQUARIUM DISPLAYS
- Developed many new concepts and techniques for the display of
aquatic organisms at Marineland of the Pacific, Steinhart
Aquarium, Sea World, the largest and most successful Oceanarium in
the U.S. and Monterey Bay Aquarium, the most successful Public
Aquarium in the U.S. Many of these new exhibit techniques have
been duplicated at other aquariums of the world.
- My continuous desire to bring new and stimulating exhibits to
the public eye has resulted in the display of many aquatic animals
never seen before.
- While at Marineland of the Pacific as head aquarist was
responsible for the underwater collection, by means of SCUBA of
marine animals and, in addition, assisted the chief collector in
the capture and transport of whales, dolphins and large
- Operated a private business of supplying Universities,
wholesalers and aquarium stores with marine animals collected by
means of a dive boat and underwater collecting equipment and
- Operated this business while employed at Marineland, Steinhart
and Sea World. Developed several new techniques for the capture of
rare or unusually wary creatures. These methods included the
development and use of the "slurp gun", the use of fish
anaesthetics, night diving and special nets and traps.
- Diver-Ichthyologist Member of the California Academy of
Sciences 1964 Scientific Expedition to the Gulf of California.
- In charge of the Experimental Shark Tank at Sea World and was
responsible for developing new techniques for the capture and
transport of large sharks over long distances. Developed the
self-contained shark transport box and oxygen pump supersaturation
technique currently in use today.
- Responsible for the animal transport system during the
California Academy of Sciences 1974 Coelacanth Expedition to the
Comorro Islands in the Indian Ocean.
- Performed bioassays, using fishes as the test organisms,
upon oil company and sewage treatment plant effluents submitted by
the California Department of Fish and Game. This work consisted of
continuous testing of pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, hardness
and the reactions of the test organisms. Results of this work were
used in court cases.
- While at Marineland, established a program of monitoring
the bacterial concentration of the large marine mammal and fish
tanks with a view to installing a system of ultraviolet
sterilization of the circulating water.
- Responsible for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention
of fish diseases at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Sea World,
Marineland and Steinhart Aquarium.
- At the laboratory of the Hyperion Sewage Treatment
Plant, conducted bacteriological testing of sewage and ocean
waters and made turbidity readings of seawater samples taken from
Santa Monica Bay. Performed counts and identification of plankton
and made an extensive series of photomicrographs of the plankton
specimens. On board the sampling boat, operated the plankton net
and bathythermograph recorder as well as taking dissolved oxygen
and bacterial samples.
1998--present Aquarium Exhibit Design Consultation
1993--1998 Director of Live Exhibit Development, Monterey Bay
Aquarium, Monterey, CA
1980--1993 Director of Husbandry, Monterey Bay Aquarium,
1974--1980 Curator, Steinhart Aquarium, California Academy of
Sciences, San Francisco, CA
1965--1974 Curator of Fishes, Sea World, San Diego, CA
1962--1965 Assistant Curator of Aquatic Biology, Steinhart
Aquarium, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA
1959--1962 Head Aquarist, Marineland of the Pacific, Palos
1960--1962 Bioanalyst--self employed
1961--1962 California Marine Biological Supply Co.,
1958--1959 Laboratory Assistant, Hyperion Sewage Treatment
Plant, City of Los Angeles, CA
1956--1957 Marine Specimen Collector (part-time), UCLA Zoology
Dept., Los Angeles, CA
1953--1954 Marine Biologist, California Department of Fish and
Game, Long Beach, CA
1946--1947 Medical Technician, US Army, Okinawa
1944--1946 U.S. Merchant Marine, North Atlantic & South
1957 University of California, Los Angeles, M.A.
1953 University of California, Los Angeles, B.A. Zoology
1943 Friends' High School, Saffron Walden, England
Author of "A Fascination for Fish: Adventures of an
published by the University of California Press/Monterey Bay
Born 1927, Barberton, South Africa
Married, 2 grown children
Height: 5' 10", 178cm, Weight 160lbs, 72kg
AZA Association of Zoos and Aquariums
AES American Elasmobranch Society
SPOOF Society for the Protection of Old Fishes
American Civil Liberties Union
Union of Concerned Scientists
Friends of the Monarchs
Listed in Who's Who of the West
References will be provided upon request